Use of Biological Entities as Alternatives of In- Situ Conventional Analytical Methods
Monitoring of contaminants in the air, water and soil is an instrumental component in understanding and managing risk to human health and the environment. Given this requirement as well as the time and cost involved in traditional analytical chemical analysis of environmental samples, there is an expanding need for simple, rapid, cost-effective and field portable screening methods. Biosensors and bio-analytical methods appear well suited to complement standard analytical methods for a number of environmental monitoring applications. Biosensors are compact, portable, cost effective and simple to use, making them eminently suitable for the in- situ monitoring of environmental pollutants. Biosensor capabilities of target range and sensitivity can be further improved by modification and genetic engineering. Recent uses of such genetically engineered microbial biosensor include the development of portable biosensor kits and high throughput cell arrays on chips, optic fibres, or other platforms for on site and on line monitoring of environmental pollution.