Tour Report of Karwapani Forest Area, Dehradun
Introduction of the area: Karwapani swamp forest is situated near ManakSidh temple nearby Shimla road and is about 15 Km north of Dehra Dun occupying an area of about 3-4 Sq Km. The swamp is surrounded by several villages, which include Buddhi, Nayagoan, Ganeshpur, Rattanpur and Pelio. It lies in the latitude 30˚2” to 30˚ 26” (N) and Longitude 77˚52″ to 78˚- 19″ (E). Mean maximum temperature is 19.2°C to 36.6°C and Mean minimum temperature is about 6.3°C to 23.2°C. The Annual rainfall is 2015 mm. The climate of the area is more or less like that of Dehra Dun being more temperate and humid than adjoining areas. It forms the typical habitat, where water oozes out at places known as ‘Oogals’ which form perennial streams.
Objective of the Tour: The tour was organized to study the biological diversity of the forest area of Karwa pani. Forests are one of the important biological resources from which human beings and animals draw various kinds of benefits. To study the resources and the threats related to them, the tour was organized. Students of M.Sc. II and IV Sem. and B.Sc. Biotech, visited the area along with the two faculty members of Botany Department.
Dr. Sandeep Dhyani, HOD Botany
Dr. Neha Tiwari Joshi
Studies undertaken by the students of Botany in the area
The list of tree species, shrubs and herbs recorded by the students are:
Tree species- Syzygium cumini, Tectona grandis, Shorea robusta, Terminalia bellerica, Mallotus philipinensis, Psydium guazava, Embelica officinalis etc.
Shrub species- Calatropis procera, Lantana camara, Collibrookia oppositifolia, Carissa opaca, Ardisia solanacea.
Herb species– Fibristylis dichotoma, Cyperus rotundus, Desmodium gangeticum, Apludamutica, Oplismanus compositus, Oxalis corniculata, Mazus pumilus, Euphorbia hirta, Reinwardtia indica, Pteris biurita, Adiantum sps, Urina lobata, Flamingia strobilifera, Poa annua.
Biotic Stresses: During study several biotic disturbances observed within swamp forest.
Grazing: Livestock grazing is one of the main causes of vegetation degradation in Karwapani forest. Livestock overgrazing in swamp area results lowering the productivity and resilience of host species, reduction of vegetation cover, increase of unpalatable species, decrease of species diversity and alteration of soil structure.
Collection of fuel wood: Fuelwood is a major resource in rural areas and local communities who live close to forests often depend on them for woodfuel, their main source of energy. fuelwood collection have dramatically reduced the total amount of forestland around the world because allowing the collection of dead wood in forests is double-edged as it creates opportunities for other activities that are more damaging.
Encroachment of forest area: Encroachment of forest land for cultivation and other purposes continues to be the most dangerous practice endangering forest resources, including flora and fauna. In Karwapani the forest adjacent communities continuously changing land use patterns for their daily demands.
Developmental Projects within forest area: Construction for water storage and pipeline for water supply cause not only the forest loss, fragmentation, and expansion of the edge area but also a lowering of species diversity.
Gujjar settlements: During the study we found gujjars settlement in the area. Students and faculty interacted with the gujjars to know their way of living, resources that they are using from the forest area, number of cattles with them and their source of earning.
The tour was fruitful in understanding the forest resources of the Karwapani forest. In addition also understand the various stresses that forests are facing due to anthropogenic activities and changes in climatic conditions.
Tour Organized by: Dr. Sandeep Dhyani & Dr. Neha Tiwari Joshi