Problems in Potato Farming in Uttarakhand Hills – Anoop Badoni
Problems In Potato Farming Blog | UCBMSH – Agro Science Degree courses college in Dehradun ( Doon ) , Uttarakhand , India
Potato is an important human food with wider adaptability potential to fill the gap between food needs and sales. It is because the yield potential of potato is still underutilized where as major sales are fast approaching the practical limits of their production. Hence, potato can contribute substantially towards providing both the food and nutritional scarcity in the years to come. But there are several problems in conventional methods for potato production, which are discussed previously. To solve these proble ms production of mini tubers seed material of potato, by using in vitro technique is the only substitute at this time. In India, traditional methods are used for potato cultivation. In hills, farmers face many problems in the cultivation and storage of food material. These problems affect the farmers socially as well as economically. The origin of the proposal is due to wastage of large food material, low multiplication rate and lake of commercialization. By using in vitro techniques several problems are to be solved, by this a disease free planting material having high yield can be produced, which solve the problems of hills farmers. Because of many problems in conventional cultivation method production of mini tuber seed material is essential step for scientist and researchers, by which an Organization, Institute or University gives a problem free method and material to the farmers.
Present status of seed channels in Uttarakhand and the major drawbacks of the present channels:
In present, there is no any proper seed channel available to the farmers in Garhwal hills of Uttarakhand. Farmers kept potato as the seed material from the whole crop which they produced. However, some farmers brought potato from Sahkari Mandi and local contractor @ Rs. 6-10/ kg. Farmers of the hilly area faced many problems related to agriculture development some are focused as follows:
- Unavailability of a platform to ask questions related to problems regarding seeds, agronomy, marketing and future strategies for another crop
- Farmers of Hilly region don’t know about the new agricultural technologies and farming patterns changing time to time due to climate change
- Farmers don’t know at which time which step is essential for good crop production
- Uncertain whether condition directly affects the crop production
- Unavailability of newly developed varieties,
- Time to time technical support is not available,
- Farmers don’t know about the generation of the seeds, i.e. age of seeds which directly affect the soil emergence and production.
- Farmers don’t know which variety is suitable and high yielding for the area
- Lake of technical support
- Lake of knowledge about fertilizers, pesticides and other chemicals for particular crop
- Lack of certified seed material: there is no any seed agency that produced certified seed of potato.
- All conventional potato seed production systems are characterized by low multiplication rate and progressive accumulation of degenerative viral diseases during clonal propagation. About 30 viruses and virus like agents infect potato.
- Low multiplication rate: in contrast to seed propagated crops, the multiplication rate in potato is low varying from 1:3 to 1:8 (one tuber yields 3 to 8 tubers) depending upon variety, agro-climatic conditions and crop management practices.
- Non-availability of quality planting material in adequate quantities and at affordable prices is the major bottleneck in potato cultivation in Garhwal Hills of Uttarakhand.
- Transportation of potato seed is another major drawback in hills and with the cost of potato seed, transportation cost is also increases the whole cost of seed material.
As population of India as well as world are increases day by day, the food needs is also increases, so sustainable use of land resources is must for proper production of food crops. Potato food crop is traditionally grown vegetatively through seed tubers. One of the main problem is that the seed tubers are required more to cover area of land. In order to avert malnutrition and hunger it is imperative to exploit over land resources in such a sustainable way that the increases in food stock not only keeps pace with the population growth, the mini tuber seed material of potato crop can alleviate the situation substantially. The problem of high price of seed tubers is also solving by using mini tuber seed material. Yield potential of a crop is very important, especially for commercial cultivation, but identification of diseased seed tuber is not possible at every time. As a result, yield of potato decreases. As population and pollution is increased with this the disease and insect problems are also increased. By using in vitro technique disease free micro tuber seed material are develop and the cost of production is also decrease by using low cost component. In vitro regenerated plants have become in important mode of rapid multiplication of potato germplasm and pribasic stocks in tuber seed multiplication schemes as well as germplasm exchange. Micro propagation of virus free plants has reduced yield losses by 50%. Virus free plants have been raised for potato, sugarcane, garlic, banana, strawberry, grapes etc. Obtaining quantities of clean planting material has been a major barrio to increases potato production in many developing tropical countries. Tissue culture can be derived from a variety of plant organs (viz. meristem-tip, shoots, roots, leaves anthers etc.). Initiation of culture involves; selection, preparation and sterilization of explants and inoculation.